Genetics and DNA.

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What is Genetics?
Genetics may be a branch of biology that deals with the transmission of inherited characters from parent to offspring at the time of fertilization.
Genes are made from such strands of DNA. Different sorts of each gene are called alleles. Most of the genes are equivalent altogether to people. But one-hundredth of the totals is slightly different between people. These are the variables that contribute to each people. Genes carry of blueprints for the formation of cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Genes are made from a macromolecule called desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Genetic Variation: it’s not always that offspring only resembles parents, but they also vary from them. In fact, the resemblances are thanks to the genes they inherit.

What is DNA?
DNA is desoxyribonucleic acid. Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and quite 99 percent of these bases are equivalent altogether to people. To understand the genetic process, first, we’ve to understand some facts about DNA.
• Each of the 100 trillion cells in our body except the red blood cells contains the genetic information of the individual. it’s the DNA that contains the whole ordering for nearly every organism and provides a template for protein synthesis.
• DNA during a chromosome is within the sort of very fine fibers.
• Each DNA fiber contains a chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of sugar, i.e., deoxyribose, a molecule of phosphate, and a base.
• The deoxyribose and phosphate molecules are always equivalent and supply for the structure.
• Every Protein is formed from a series of amino acids; the character of the protein depending upon the amino acids present, and therefore the sequence during which they’re arranged.
• Under the influence of DNA, these amino alkanoic acids are linked together especially in sequence to make proteins.
Genetic disorders of DNA
Down syndrome: it’s also referred to as mongolism. during this disease child is born with physical and mental disabilities, countenance is distinct from such babies.
Sickle cell anemia: it’s a genetic disorder where erythrocytes aren’t healthy enough to hold out oxygen as they become sickle-shaped.

Hemophilia: In hemophilia patient’s ability to grume is diminished so after injury it takes a while to prevent bleeding.
Thalassemia: A blood disease involving lower-than-normal amounts of an oxygen-carrying protein.
Turner syndrome (45, XO)
Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY)
The physical appearance of a patient with genetic disease :
• Short structure, large head, short neck.
• Flat, round face
• Folded eyelids are commonly observed in the Yellow race.
• Large thick and swollen tongue and drooping lips.
• Mental retardation. Lower sensitivity
• Short, stubby figure: Flat Palm.
• Poorly developed reproductive organs.
• Sterile.
If two bodies have equivalent genes, they appear equivalent. This happens with identical twins. They both develop from an equivalent embryo cell that splits in two. Non-identical twins are produced when two eggs are both fertilized. Identical twins will always be of equivalent sex and have an equivalent eye color.

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